Tornado Tracking

Forecast basics Identifying and understanding ingredients | Search for boundaries and gradients | Looking for what could go wrong :: Spotting basics Tornado shapes and sizes | Tornadic radar signatures

Nav SPC tornado/severe risks | Satellite/surface observations | Key ingredients | General links | NWS office links | Warnings

Tornado risk overview – Storm Prediction Center

The key things to know from the experts, select images for more info at source

Today’s tornado probabilities

View current day 1 severe weather outlook

The probability of a tornado within 25 miles of a point. If a hatched area is included in the image, which is only done with probabilities of 10 percent or higher, strong tornadoes are more of a concern than normal. The following tornado probabilities correspond to each SPC storm risk category.

2%, Marginal | 5%, Slight | 10%, Enhanced (hatch = EF2+ greater risk) | 15%, Moderate (as above) | 30%, Moderate (if no hatch) | 30%+, High (hatch = EF2+ greater risk)

Current outlook areas, radar, and convective watches

View current day 1 severe weather outlook

Organized risk of severe storms begins with “marginal” (MRGL). Levels increase from there to “slight” (SLGT), then “enhanced” (ENH), next is “moderate” (MDT), and finally “high” (HIGH). In a marginal risk, one might expect mostly non severe storms, with perhaps an isolated severe weather incident. Severity is up from there, from short-lived in slight to more persistent in enhanced, long-lived in moderate, and exceptional in high. SPC has a graphic covering differences.

Watches, either tornado (red) or severe thunderstorm (blue), indicate that storms are likely to pose the highlighted threat. Tornadoes also occur in severe thunderstorm watches fairly frequently.

The days ahead

Tomorrow’s severe weather outlook

View current day 2 severe weather outlook

Day three severe weather outlook | Days 4-8 severe weather outlook

(return to top)


Viewing storms from space

NASA Regional Viewer (Visible, Infrared, Water Vapor) | GOES-14 SRSOR Imagery 1 min scans (not always available)

Current surface conditions

A look at the key environmental factors

U.S. surface features

A surface feature analysis often tells the basic story of any weather setup. High pressure? Probably sunny. Low pressure? Probably stormy. When it comes to tornadoes, your classic setups involve a low pressure system (little red L above) to the northwest or west of the area of primary severe risk. Other features that help produce tornadoes include wind shift zones like the warm front (red lines with half-circle bubbles pointing in the direction of movement), surface trough/dry line (dashed orange line, often connected to a low), and in some cases the cold front (blue line with arrows pointing in the direction of movement).

SPC mesoanalysis pressure plot

U.S. observations, including wind speed and direction

Weather observations are critical to any severe storm forecast. The chart above is a simple one, and similar to the general surface feature map just above. When it comes to tornado forecasting, the quick items to look for in actual station observations that aren’t explicitly in the features map include: surface winds and temperatures, as well as dew points (more detail on that below). A critical component in tornadogenesis is “backing” low-level winds. In many warm-season cases, that means a southeasterly wind or close. In general, winds with a lengthy southerly component will efficiently transport moisture northward. Where winds shift, fronts or boundaries can be found.

U.S. temperatures

U.S. dewpoints

(return to top)

Key tornado indices via the Storm Prediction Center

These indicators are among the best

Surface based CAPE

CAPE, or Convective Available Potential Energy, is among the necessary ingredients for storms. If CAPE is zero, the atmosphere is stable. Measured in Joules per kilogram (j/kg), values near or over 500-1,000 j/kg are often about the low-end needed for widespread severe weather chances. Values over 3,000-4,000 are considered extremely unstable, often indicative of a high-end severe weather event. There are several layers of the atmosphere in which CAPE is measured, with surface CAPE among the most used to determine thunderstorm potential and gauge a severity ceiling.

A look at Cape | Examining CAPE

Bulk shear

Bulk shear, or deep layer shear, is defined as the change in wind speed or direction within the lowest 6 km or 3.5 miles of the atmosphere. Bulk shear values of 40 knots or greater are supportive of supercells. Values lower, say between 30 and 40 knots, may also support supercells or supercell structures depending on the terrain and other ingredients. Larger bulk shear values tend to correlate to higher tornado potential, to a point at least.

Severe weather forecasting tip sheat (NWS, PDF)

Supercell composite

Supercell composite is an index that includes several severe weather ingredients. The ingredients are effective storm-relative helicity, most unstable CAPE (muCAPE), and effective bulk wind difference. Values of 1 or greater indicate an increased potential for right-moving supercells, should storms fire or move into the region highlighted by the supercell composite index. More details can be found here.

Significant tornado

The significant tornado parameter (effective layer) is another composite index. Like the supercell composite, it contains several ingredients. The soup that makes up the significant tornado parameter includes effective bulk wind difference, effective storm-relative helicity, 100mb mean parcel CAPE (mlCAPE), and 100mb mean parcel height (mILCL). Values greater than 1 have been associated with a majority of tornadoes that have been rated significant/strong (which is a rating of F/EF2 or greater). Non-tornadic supercells, on the other hand, are often associated with significant tornado parameters of less than 1.

Surface-1km EHI

LCL Height

The Lifting Condensation Level (LCL) is the pressure level at which air reaches saturation upon being lifted. In more basic terms, it is often roughly where the base of a cloud should form as thunderstorm convection occurs during the warm season. Research has found that supercell tornadoes generally require LCLs below 1,500 meters. Strong tornadoes are more common with LCLs below 1,000 meters, and probably more in the 600 to 800 meter zone or lower. LCLs are often lower in a storm environment than shown in a large-scale analyses like above.

(return to top)

Tornado and severe weather links

Key sources for forecasting tornadoes and severe weather

General tornado forecast tools Models | Data and Models | COD Meteorology Model Page | SPC Short Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) Page

Short-term tools

SPC Mesoanalysis Pages | SPC Observed Soundings | CONUS Radar Loop (large)

Medium-to-long term tools

CIPS historical analog guidance (extended analogs) | Experimental Tornado Probability Based on GEFS Reforecasts | CFS Severe Weather Guidance Dashboard

Tornado watching tools

Tornado Intensity Reference Guide

Lightning tracking

Vaisala lightning network | – Real Time Lightning

(return to top)

NWS office links

Area Forecast Discussions


(FL) Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Tampa, Melbourne, Miami, Key West (GA) Atlanta/Peachtree City (SC) Columbia, Charleston, Greenville/Spartanburg (NC) Wilmington, Morehead City, Raleigh


(AR) Little Rock (LA) Shreveport, Lake Charles, New Orleans (TN) Memphis, Nashville, Morristown (MS) Jackson (AL) Huntsville, Birmingham, Mobile

South/central Plains

(TX) Amarillo, Austin, Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Fort Worth, Houston, Lubbock, Midland, San Angelo (NM) Albuquerque (OK) Norman, Tulsa (KS) Dodge City, Goodland, Topeka, Wichita (CO) Denver, Pueblo

North/central Plains

(NE) Hastings, North Platte, Omaha (WY) Cheyenne (SD) Aberdeen, Rapid City, Sioux Falls (ND) Bismarck, Grand Forks (MT) Billings, Glasgow

(return to top)

Recent Tornado Warnings

Places at risk now or in the recent past

(return to top)
This page is undergoing development.

22 thoughts on “Tornado Tracking”

  1. Bob says:

    what does slgt mean

    1. Alan Burnham says:

      “SLGT” is a shortened form of “slight” risk on the convective outlook map.

      1. Max says:

        There should be an “EXTREME” Risk, were Strong Winds Are 100% Happening, EF3+ Tornadoes, Big Hail, Long Tornado Outbreak. Extreme = EXE

      2. Macy Misa says:

        Hi it’s Hannah Babcock and I want to ask you something what should I do to be a tornado tracker and chaser

        1. Jesse Burdette says:

          Learn everything you can then learn more. Then go chasing with an experienced chaser or book a storm chasing tour. At that point you should know how to stay safe and enact good strategy. Tim Valquez (spelling may be off) has a great book to read called the storm chasers handbook. Beyond weather you need to know how to chase safely and have courtesy toward land owners locals and other chasers.

      3. Sarahlynn Bowling says:

        Do you think there will be a tornado tomorrow in Ohio May 29 2019

  2. Ian Livingston says:

    Slight risk. Currently the first of three levels of severe outlooks from SPC, though this will be changing quite soon. Here’s something of an overview of both the original and the upcoming:

    Or from SPC:

  3. Romanatwood says:

    What does mrgl and mdt and enh

    1. Derek Baker (@blueznjazz) says:

      Hi Romanatwood. They represent “Marginal”, “Moderate”, and “Enhanced” risk for severe weather. Go to the links Ian shared in his reply above, and they will explain what each type of risk means.

  4. Romanatwood says:


  5. Banana says:

    I <3 tornados!

    1. Mason Hall says:

      For sure

  6. ka lefevre says:

    thanks so much for a wonderful site with an enormous ammount of CLEAR information!

  7. Jayden says:

    How does convective available potential energy, bulk shear, lifting condensation levels and energy helicity index all work together for types of storms that tornado chances are higher in? I’d like to be a meteorologist some day. I’m very interested and I have been for awhile. Thank you for this site that shows all of the facts. It has been helpful👍👍

  8. KEVIN TRINH says:

    Thanks you for this site that shows all of the facts,it has been helpful

  9. gabby says:

    I <3 weather!!

  10. Scot says:

    Thanks for this awesome site!

  11. will says:

    hi i am william 9 years old but super smart anyways hurricane chris will turn to a hurricane cat 1 and 2

  12. Allison says:

    This is a good website and it’s very informative!! I have a few questions. Do/have tornados touched down in the same or general spot a number of times? I’m not talking about same cities hit over and over, but has the start point been the same? If so, hasn’t there been research done in regards to this as in, ground temps, humidity levels, barometric pressure readings, low and high level air temps in each recurrent case to find a correlation to add to the mystery of the other components of tornados??

  13. Chelsea Moncrief says:

    What is the probability of an overnight tornado in nova, just 30 minutes south of DC, 45 north of fredericksburg?

  14. cole turney says:

    Very great page for checking weather

  15. Cody Berry says:

    it would be better if it gave current warnnings or waches for storms

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.